Aviation Industry Protocol 2005: Prevention of excess alcohol and drugs and drugs among aircrew. The jobs reflect, to some extent, the general presence of alcohol and drugs in European society, but especially with regard to alcohol. More importantly, alcohol and drugs are a serious problem for a significant portion of the working-age population, with significant consequences for those affected, businesses and the economy as a whole. An Italian campaign conducted in the summer of 2006 among construction workers in Teramo province showed that up to 9% of the workers tested had alcohol in their blood (especially on the afternoon and Monday and Friday) (Cocchini et al. 2006). Keep in mind that the lab results are not inactive. As a general rule, the law requires that a first failed drug test be confirmed by a second test in order to rule out a “false positive.” Employees may also have the right to challenge the results, although it can be difficult to argue against two failed tests. In Portugal, 6% of construction workers report that they become nervous after a few hours without alcohol (Bizarro, 2007). In Spain, the Spanish Monitoring Centre for Drugs (5.96 MB PDF in Spain) found that 5.0% and 2.3% of male and female workers are considered high-risk users of alcohol (i.e. more than 50 cm3 per day for men and more than 30 cm3 per day for women).
Workers should not create risks by using alcohol and drugs. Survey on alcohol consumption at work (Slovenian, 272 Kb PDF) A study of alcohol consumption patterns (in Polish, 184 Kb PDF) published in 2008 by the National Agency for the Prevention of Alcohol Problems (PARPA) showed that 8.2% of Polish workers consumed alcohol in the workplace. (GazetaPraca, August 31, 2009, in Polish). Austrian estimates, cited in a 2006 business alcohol conference (665 Kb PDFs) cited in Germany, indicate that the cost to businesses of alcohol consumption in the workplace is 1.25% – 2.5% of the total wage bill, or about 2.9 million euros per day. At the same time, the Austrian Manual on Alcohol Consumption (Uhl et al., 2009) suggests that for every 10,000 workers, the cost of alcohol-related absenteeism amounts to 2.5 million euros per year.